Digital pathology for Cancer diagnosis and personalized recommendations

The Burden of Cancer
• Approximately 40% of men and women will be diagnosed with cancer at some point during their lifetimes (based on 2010-2012 data).
• In 2016, an estimated 1,685,210 new cases of cancer were diagnosed in the United States and 600,000 people died from the disease.
• Worldwide statistics compiled by the International Agency for Research on Cancer project that new cancer cases will rise 70% over the next 2 decades, from 14 million in 2012 to 22 million per year in 2035 (2).
• Most common in order projected are breast cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, prostate cancer, colon and rectum cancer, bladder cancer, melanoma of the skin, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, thyroid cancer, kidney and renal pelvis cancer, leukemia, endometrial cancer, and pancreatic cancer.
• The number of people living beyond a cancer diagnosis reached nearly 14.5 million in 2014 and is expected to rise to almost 19 million by 2024.
• National expenditures for cancer care in the United States totaled nearly $125 billion in 2010 and could reach $156 billion in 2020.
Laboratory Statistics
• CAP-accredited laboratories-7,964
• 18,000 pathologists in USA.
• Number of active physicians in pathology decreased by 10.4% between 2008 and 2013
• 60% of active pathologists are 55 or older.
• Diagnostic Medicine is $35 billion market, growth 5-7% yearly.
• Pathology labs revenue is approximately $15-16 billion in revenue.
• The global digital pathology market, valued at $1.98 billion in 2012, is estimated to reach $5.7 billion by 2020.
• The In vitro diagnostics market revenue is expected to reach $74.65 billion by 2020, from the market value of $53.32 billion in 2013, at a CAGR of 5.34% during 2014-2020.
Off the shelf digital pathology technology
• IntelliSite pathology solution by Philips features three core elements:
• IntelliSite ultra fast scanner, a high-throughput bright-field slide scanner designed to accommodate current histopathology needs for routine use in high-volume labs and integrated pathology networks. The scanner has a storage capacity of 300 barcoded slides, which allows the scanner to run overnight. It also supports a continuous scan mode; it can be loaded and reloaded at any time without disrupting the scanning process.
• IntelliSite image management system works to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of pathology labs. The open and scalable design offers optimal integration with the lab’s workflow and IT infrastructure environment.
• IntelliSite pathologist suite, designed to enable pathologists to review cases as quickly as possible; provides easy access to information and resources to enable better-informed decision-making.
Grail: Building intelligent models to surface clinically actionable insights from vast amounts of tumor genome data obtained through high-intensity sequencing.
Verily: Verily is working together with Nikon (including its subsidiary Optos) and leveraging software and machine learning models created by Google Research to develop technology for the earlier detection of these two debilitating eye diseases. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are leading causes of blindness among adults around the world, and improved access and screening rates can prevent disease progression and blindness.
Amazon has a secret health care team called 1492 focused on medical records, virtual doc visits


References:
1. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/understanding/statistics
2. https://www.cap.org/ShowProperty?nodePath=/UCMCon/Contribution%20Folders/WebContent/pdf/cap-annual-report.pdf
3. 2014 Physician Specialty Data Book. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges, 2014
4. Whole Slide Image repository
5. Digital Pathology Association
6. http://www.clpmag.com/2016/08/business-case-digital-pathology/
7. http://www.clpmag.com/2016/08/pathology-goes-digital/

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